You Will an Essay Write

All the young Jedi apprentices groaned when Master Yoda announced, "You will an essay write."

Once upon a time, everything was made by hand. Each item had to be crafted individually; it took forever because there was no standardization. When Man grasped the concept of using patterns, templates and molds to mass-produce identical parts for later assembly, manufacturing efficiency took a great leap forward. Whether making furniture or automobiles, once people had assembled the first model, building additional copies was a piece of cake. They could be certain that the parts would fit together.

Why can't the same process be applied to writing essays?

Many folks would argue that writing an essay is not the same as building a car. An essay written by one individual will always differ from that of another. Conventional Wisdom says, "Essays defy standardization, so of course there is no way to make writing them easy." As a result, students believe that they must start from scratch all over again on each new essay assignment. The prospect causes great consternation. "What will I write? Where will I begin? If only there were some kind of essay writing system..."

The perception that no part of the essay writing process can be "systematized" (i.e. repeated over and over again) is flawed. It overlooks the fact that the structure of virtually every type of essay follows the same format. American high school English classes focus almost exclusively on the content of an essay. Since each essay assignment deals with new subject matter, students assume that all essays are different. They don't realize that "topic" is an irrelevant factor. There is very little discussion about the format of a properly structured essay.

Too bad! Most students don't learn the secret that makes writing essays easy - all they have to do is follow the same format every time. Usually the topic of the essay assignment is posed in the form of a question. There is never any doubt about where to begin - the first sentence of the essay should answer the question! After that, list some reasons supporting the answer. In the following paragraphs, provide details to back up those reasons. Each paragraph should deal with only one reason. Come to a conclusion.

It's a morceau de gateau (piece of cake). There is no need to feel confused. When students follow the format, writing an essay becomes like painting by the numbers. The formula never changes. Follow the yellow brick road and always stay on the path. If high school English teachers would devote three measly days to teaching this concept (and only this concept), most students would no longer have to panic when they hear, "You will an essay write."

c. 2009 Michael Strong

The Great Essay Writing Process

Many students find essay writing a cumbersome and painful assignment. That is because they are still not sure how to approach essay writing. If you get the approach right, you find that essay writing is not painful at all. In fact, it can be a very fun and fulfilling process.

Essay writing is often referred to as an art and with good reason. It can take years of practice to perfect the craft. Most often students really become good at writing essays when they reach the end of their school careers. Here is a basic guide to essay writing.

1. Read and comprehend the essay topic/question

This is the most important part of the essay writing process. Once you have properly understood what the essay question is asking you can analyze what kinds of supporting research you will need. There is no need to formulate your entire argument yet save that for later in your essay writing sample. For now you need to understand exactly what the question is asking you. Highlight key terms and brainstorm some possible angles.

2. Research the topic

Go to the library, internet, read some books, look over your notes. Hone in on the specific question at hand and read information pertaining to it.

3. Write an outline

As elementary as it seems sometimes, outlines are the scaffolding for all successful writing. It does not have to be a formal outline, but just sketch out the order of your essay in some method that you understand.

4. Write a thesis statement

The thesis statement is the foundation of your essay. Write that one sentence that argues the point, the debate, and the crux of your essay. It will be the final sentence of your introduction and the starting point for the rest of the writing.

5. Write the paper

Just write. It does not have to be a masterpiece as you write that first draft. Just get something on paper that you can eventually mold into a final product.

6. Edit the paper for content

Edit the paper to make sure you are staying on target, following your thesis, and have enough supporting evidence to prove your thesis.

7. Edit the paper for grammar

Give your essay a quick look solely for grammatical problems (spelling, punctuation, transitions, and so on).

The easiest part and definitely the most enjoyable. Going through your essay with your own red pen and editing it ruthlessly will ensure that you have a perfect essay to turn in when the deadline comes.

Brillat-Savarin - Famous in Chef Jackets

Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, born in France on April 1, 1755, was a politician and lawyer who became famous as a gastronome and epicure. Born to a family of lawyers in Belley, Ain near where the Rhone River separated France from Savoy, he studied law, medicine, and chemistry in his early years in Dijon, and then went into law practice in his hometown. At the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789 he was sent to the Estates-General, which later became the National Constituent Assembly, as a deputy. He acquired some fame, particularly for his public speech defending capital punishment. When an aunt named Savarin willed him her entire fortune with the stipulation that he adopt her surname, he changed his name from Brillat to Brillat-Savarin. Upon returning to Belley he was elected mayor for a year. Later on in the Revolution a bounty was placed on his head, and he escaped and sought political asylum in womens mock turtleneck in Switzerland. Later he moved to Holland, thence to the United States where he remained for three years in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Hartford, supporting himself by giving lessons in French and violin. For a while he was the first violin in New York's Park Theater Orchestra. Brillat-Savarin returned in 1797 to a France under the Directory. He soon acquired the post of magistrate which he would occupy for the rest of his life: the judge of the Court of Cassation. He wrote and published several works on political economy and the law.

His most famous work was Physiologie du goût (The Physiology of Taste), which was published in 1825, just two months before he died on February 2, 1826. Since its original publication this book has never been out of print. The main body of this work, although sometimes wordy and aphoristic, has remained of first importance to historians and aficionados of gastronomy, and has been analyzed and reanalyzed throughout the years since his death. The Meditations are reminiscent of Montaigne's Essays and have a discursive rhythm of the age of educated pleasures. In Meditation ii he compared the aftertaste, the fragrance and perfume of the food, to musical harmonics: "But for that odor which is felt in the back of your mouth, the sensation of taste would be obtuse and imperfect." Brillat-Savarin in chef jackets considered dining to be a science, and discoursed at length on the pleasures of the table.

His stylistic models were the Ancien Regime stylists: Voltaire, Fenelon, Rousseau, Cochin, Buffon, and d'Aguesseau. Besides Latin, Brillat Savarin was fluent in five modern languages, and enjoyed showing them off in his writing. Every page is a celebration of the philosophy of Epicurus: "Discovering a new dish confers more happiness on humanity than the discovery of a new star." and "A dessert which doesn't include cheese is like a beautiful woman who only has one eye." and once, when offered grapes for dessert after dinner, pushed the plate aside and replied: "Thank you, but I am not accustomed to taking my wine in pills." But at the same time, Brillat-Savarin is often considered to be the originator of the low-carbohydrate diet. He considered white flour and sugar to be the main cause of obesity, and suggested instead using protein-rich ingredients. Indeed, it is true that carnivorous animals don't grow fat (think of lions, jackals, wolves, birds of prey, etc.). Animals which are herbivores do not grow fat until age reduces them to a state of relative inactivity, but they do grow fat very quickly when they are fed grains, potatoes, and flours. It is starchy substances and flours which cause obesity, and it is precisely these which most people have made the centerpiece of their daily diets. Brillat-Savarin in bib apron was satisfied with the simplest meal as long as it was prepared and served with artistry: "Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are."

The Strategic Use of Essay Writing Examples

If you're ever stuck trying to write an essay, one of the best tricks you can use is to find essay writing examples. The old chestnut "the best way to learn how to write is to read" didn't gain its cliche status for nothing; reading reorients you to the perspective of reader, making you a more mindful writer.

Your essay writing samples can be friends' essays, essays published in books, or just essays you find online. It is important to make sure that any essay writing examples you use are from quality sources, otherwise they might serve as poor examples on which to base your own work.

Once you have your hands on one or many samples, you can use them to give yourself a crash-course in essay writing. Look at your essay writing samples. How are they formatted? Notice the structure of the writing sample. Does it have an identifiable beginning, middle, and end?

Also try and pay attention to the way the author has organized his or her ideas into a cohesive argument. If the essay involves an emotional appeal, identify what strategies the author used to get a reaction out of you. Think about what kind of language is being used and the effect it has on you, as a reader, and how you might manipulate language to your benefit when you are writing your own essay.

Finally, decide whether or not you think the essay is any good. Is the essay's point well made? Are there things you would change? If so, what? It's important to remember that you're using essay writing examples as just that-examples. Copying someone else's work without their permission and passing it off as your own is never a good idea, but if used responsibly essay writing samples can help a great deal if you are having a rough time with your essay.

The Search For Integrity In Dance

I always loved turning. Why? Because I was good at it. So when the lanky young Russian teacher, only three years my senior, glared at me critically after a pirouette combination, I froze.

"Jeeeeeeem!," she screeched. "Vat is these? In ballet turn like these, in jazz turn like these, what you do is...I don't know."

As she comically demonstrated my errant pirouette, I understood that my turn out was somewhere between the ideal ballet retiré and the parallel retiré for jazz dance. I floundered in some unknown middle ground. The various techniques I trained in--ballet, modern, jazz--seemed to combat each other. They all fought for supremacy. Each one feeling encroached upon by the other. Deep down I wanted there to be a way for them all to work together. But day in and out my body received messages saying certain aspects of one technique were incongruous with certain aspects of another.

These messages were clearest when coming from my teachers. Jerry, slight, frail, but with fiery eyes, strolled around with a kingly-air in the transformed church that served as the Ballet Center at the University of Akron. The cool, shadowy air of the building demanded reverence for the study of the art of dance. Our young paths were illuminated by the glints of sunlight slicing through the Tiffany window. This was a kingdom out of past, lost to time, and immaculately groomed, white-haired Jerry was its diminutive ruler. Once I saw an otherwise sweet-looking Shitsu violently attack an unassuming visitor. That is how Jerry approached teaching--and the other professors. And like the Shitsu, which betrays its own ferocity as it nips at your ankles, I found him amusing -- and often insightful.

"I don't know what that mad Russian woman is teaching you, but your technique is all wrong," he commonly said. My professors spent as much time arguing the faults of their peer's approaches as they did explaining to us theirs'. My Graham teacher, Tom, was austere, impressively built, and expressively intense. It seemed that the Graham repertoire had not just been learned in his mind, but absorbed into his every pore. In contrast, Linda, who also taught modern dance, had short, stark hair and a make-up-free complexion. Her contemporary approach embraced diversity of movement styles yet inwardly rebelled against the ballet and Graham vocabularies.

Every professor and student at the Ballet Center gravitated to this deconsecrated church for the same unified reason: a love of dance. But the culture we found inside was one of fragmentation. Ballet, modern, and jazz battled for disciples, each claiming its own validity and superiority. I graduated and moved to New York City to find that my college experience prepared me perfectly for the real dance world. The Us versus Them mentality of the dance world infiltrates every corner. In addition to the fragmentation between the genres, there are a multitude of other conflicts including: concert dance vs. entertainment dance, East coast vs. West Coast, Broadway jazz vs. Los Angeles jazz, Classical ballet vs. Contemporary ballet, uptown dance vs. downtown dance (in NYC), commercial schools vs. non-profit schools, and recreational training vs. pre-professional training. I found a dance world focusing on the differences between its diverse facets instead of celebrating its commonality.

It was then that I began searching for what I called "Integrity" in dance. This word resonated with me and became a banner I carried with me. I wanted to find the consistent thread that not only connected the various aspects of my dance career, which now involved performing, choreographing, and teaching, but also my personal beliefs and values with my outer profession. In the integration of eastern philosophies, developmental psychology, somatic practices, integral philosophy, and mindfulness practice I found my highly coveted "cohesion". Eastern philosophies and somatic practices (mind-body techniques) have worked side by side for decades already. It was with the discovery of mindfulness practice that my own vision of a dance world with integrity came into focus.

Now, philosophy can be a bunch of bluster and brouhaha. In the dance community, where physical action and intuitive wisdom take precedent over rationality and discursive thought, we want practical and applicable ideas. My hope is to integrate all these ideas into a new vision of dance with practical approaches for dancers: Mindful Dance. In my essays on Mindful Dance, you will find my personal theory derived from years of working in the trenches as a performer, teacher, choreographer, administrator, and writer. The specific applications are personal and developed from my own experience and creative intuition. This theory is open ended. If it appeals to you, then I encourage you to play with it. Do not swallow it whole as a rigid structure. Bend it, twist it, turn it upside down as you develop your own Mindful Dance vision and practice. And, if--in the middle of your playing--you get a free moment, let me know what you discovered.

Essay Writing Tips - Powerful Introduction and Conclusion

Essay writing is never complete without the two most essential parts - introduction and conclusion. Why? Introductions serve as teasers that establish and convey the relevance of the whole essay. On the other hand, conclusions serve as deal sealers that leave strong and persuasive impressions on the readers.

With such great responsibility, introductions and conclusions have to be as powerful as possible. These paragraphs give the readers the opening and ending statements required that can make or break an essay. Brilliant essay writing has two vital factors - attractive introduction and strong conclusion.

Writing good introduction and conclusion is not done in a snap. It entails squeezing of creative juices and sufficient time to research. But there are some important considerations that can guide essay writers in coming up with hip beginning and ending statements.

In Writing Introductions

The introduction is basically designed to grab reader's attention. It also aims to provide the readers a brief rundown of the essay's main focus and idea. Remember two main points.

1. Begin with a bang. An attention grabber opening paragraph is a sure hit in essay writing. How to formulate such? A lot of means are efficient. Here are some:

o Use startling information
Employing surprising and revealing information has always been a good way to start an essay. Essay writing is an exciting and brain stimulating activity. Using startling facts make readers curious and excited. Therefore it compels them to read more. However, the information must be true and confirmable.

o Through anecdotes
Using anecdotes is another way to start an essay. An anecdote is a story that exemplifies a point. But the anecdote must be short and genuinely relevant to the topic. This method can be a competent essay writing opener, although, I must be done cautiously.

o Try dialogues
Using dialogues as an introduction entails crucial scrutiny. The dialogue has to be appropriate and relevant. The readers must be able to understand the point that the dialogue is trying to convey. It is ideal to use only two or three exchanges between speakers to establish the main point. It must still appear as essay writing activity and not script writing.

o Apply information summary
In writing formal essays, information summary works best. A few sentences citing the general points of the topic can actually lead the readers towards the heart of the essay. It is ideal that each sentence gradually become more and more specific, until it reaches thesis statement.

2. Finish the opening paragraph with the thesis statement. This is to immediately convey to the readers the essential points that the essay offers.

In Writing Conclusion

Essay writing can never be effective without a closing statement. The conclusion does not only bring closure to the readers, it is a tool so that the essay can leave a strong and compelling impression to the readers. It does not merely sums up the important points of the essay, but it wraps up and provides a personal perspective on the topic.

Conclusions are usually three to four sentences long. It is not advisable to have long and winding ending paragraphs. Three sentences will do. However, these sentences must be powerful enough to achieve the goal of the essay - whatever it might be. Essay writers also have to ensure that the written conclusion emphasizes the value of the main claim.

There is only one key point in essay writing to make it invincible - begin strong, end stronger.

Northeast: India's Other?

India Against Itself published in 1999 and Durable Disaster published in 2005 are both written by Sanjib Baruah. I have selected these two books for the review essay as both of them revolve around a similar theme. Both books try to understand the nature of subnational politics in Northeast. While India Against Itself gives us a more historical account i.e., revisiting the colonial status of Assam and the kind of policies taken by the British govt, the other book Durable Disaster takes up the contemporary condition of the region and the problems that are there. However the books are closely interlinked as Baruah tries to show that most of the current issues can be traced to the colonial policies and also the policies of the independent India in the first few decades. In my essay I will take up the broad problems that Northeast is facing today and try to trace their origins. So I will constantly move back and forth from one book to the other.

The books revolve around narratives of "othering" and "alienation" of Northeast which is culturally very different from Indian mainland. To give a brief background-Northeast was never a part of the Mughal Empire. It was brought under British Empire only in 1826 under the Treaty of Yandaboo that ended the Anglo-Burmese war. And after independence it became part of India. Manipur, Tripura were princely states which acceded to the Indian Union. The stories enumerated in the books are the stories of this region's continuous struggle for the recognition of its difference. A sad irony that his book underlines is that most of the states that joined Indian Union on the condition of continued enjoyment of autonomy are the states where authoritarian rule is almost institutionalised in the name of national security threat elimination and autonomy is not even present in the minimalist understanding. Classic example is how in 1949 the King of Manipur was coaxed to agree to merger of Manipur rather than the loose accession.

Since independence a constant quest has been nationalising space in northeast and using this land frontier as a tool of nation building. Apparent is Sanskritized names of Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. This has also been done by taking northeast in the fold of mainstream developmentalism whereby development and underdevelopment gets constituted discursively and objective material conditions took a back seat.

It is this continued perception of Northeast through the prism of national security, aggravated post Indo-China War in 1962, along with the persistent underdevelopment of the region that has given space to subnational movements. Two major issues of grievances that fuel such movements are:

a) Immigration
b) Underdevelopment

In India Against Itself the author traces the pattern of immigration. After Assam became a part of British India, it became a land frontier and with its vast expanses of uninhabitated space attracted large scale immigration. A dense population, settled agriculture and industry were seen as markers of civilization by the Britishers. Tea, rubber, oil fields were developed and labour migration took place. Huge tracts of land were siphoned for British tea planters under extremely liberal conditions of the Waste Land Grant Law of 1838. By 1901 it was one-fourth of the total settled land. Historian Amalendu Guha will call it a Planter Raj. Even post independence Assam has been having an unnaturally high growth rate of population, much higher than the national average, owing also to the continued migration. This has in fact shaped the insider-outsider dichotomy. In the face of heavy demographic shift, the quest was to understand who is an indigenous resident and who is an outsider. Assam's culture was as if threatened by this demographic shift. Foreigners would not have been a threat had the Assamese controlled the trade and commerce. Rather it was the immigrants who controlled it. This fear of minoritization can be traced back to the colonial days when Assam was treated as an extension of Bengal especially during partition of Bengal and moreover owing to the presence of a large no. of Bengali speakers the medium of instruction was also Bengali. Making Sylhet, a Bengali district, a part of Assam just added to the problem as its educated inhabitants took away the jobs. It was only in 1873 Assamese became the medium of instruction owing to the demands of people like Anandaram Dhekiyal Phukan. Modernity brought with it the idea that a developed language is a marker of a developed civilization. This made language an active arena of politics. This led to language riots in 1960 and 1972. Such assertion threatened Bengali speakers who comprised of about 22% of the population especially in district like Cachar.

Another issue have been the persistent underdevelopment of the region. As the agitators of Assam Movement point out that the royalty that Assam gets for tea, oil is a little more than rent. Trade and commerce was dominated by business communities from outside the state, e.g. the Marwars of Rajasthan. The Assamese felt disadvantaged. Even the kind of developmental policies that the Central Govt made in New Delhi failed to address the specific needs of the region. Development in Northeast has to be sustainable development and the policies should be made at the regional level by people who know the region and by taking cognisance of the ground reality of Northeast. At present some policies regarding building roads is meant to connect areas with a population of 1000 or more. But such a policy leaves out a huge no of villages of Arunachal Pradesh which is sparsely populated. This is just one example.

Similar grievances accumulated over a period of time gave rise to conflicts in the region. Only Arunachal and Mizoram is comparatively peaceful. It has been an interesting and to some extent disturbing fact that low intensity armed conflicts has infested the area for such a long time that a militarised life has become a part of normalcy in the region. The fight for a greater Nagalim is one of the oldest armed conflicts in the world. The construction of the Naga identity which is neither a linguistic community nor an ethnic community is interesting. It can be traced back to the Inner Line system that the British govt introduced. It was a system that completely segregated the Hill Tribes people from the Valley people supposedly to protect their ways of life. But what such a system did was not take into account the close connections that existed between the Nagas and the Ahoms. Cultural ties in the form of Nagamese being a creolised form of Assamese is a proof. The segregation however led to a decline of the patronage of Vaishnavite Xotros in the Hills and made space for British missionaries. Seeds of differentiation were thus sown. And the attitude that differentiation and segregation is the only way of protecting indigenous ways of life came into being.

Naga is a conglomeration of multiple dialects and a large no of villages which shared anything but a cordial relationship, usually that of headhunting. It was only in 1950s that Naga nationhood related movement gained momentum. However it seriously threatened the state of Manipur as almost 20 Naga tribes reside there. Hurried fragmentation of Northeast has put in place a popular belief that cultures and interests can only be safeguarded in homeland. It encouraged politics of differentiation and discouraged politics of accommodation.

The linguistic re-organisation that took place did not solve the problems of Northeast as Assam was a multilingual state. It became a theatre of "cultural wars". When the Assamese were busy fighting the Bengali speakers, the hill tribes which initially supported the Assamese felt that such subnationalist aspirations will end up imposing Assamese culture and language on their tribes. Sensing this threat demands for separation came from Mizo hills, Naga Hills. To sort it out what the central govt did is a hasty division of Northeast over a period of time. It created 7 states but never looked at possible alternative solutions. What came out was cosmetic federalism. The fact that this did not solve the problem of ensuring cultural harmony is vindicated by the persistent and violent upsurges in the Northeast.

One of the famous manifestations of subnationalism was the Assam Movement that started in 1979 and was mainly concerned with the immigration issue. It was led by All Assam Students' Union which was a non political body. It wanted to portray itself as if it embodied higher and nobler goals than merely usurping political power. The movement resonated the aspirations of the Assamese civil society. Associations like Axom Xahitya Xabha came up that aimed at the development of Assamese language. However another product of the movement is the United Liberations Front of Assam. It was born in the radical fringes of the movement in 1980s. It believed that only through armed struggle it could regain the freedom that Assam lost in 1826. However ULFA parted ways with the movement on the issue of immigration, rather it appealed to all who resided in Assam i.e., Axombaxi. Initially it enjoyed tacit support of the ethnic Assamese community irrespective of its violent ways. Baruah gives a very interesting example. He traces talks about what the Assamese expects from ULFA by pointing popular Assamese songs of Dr. Bhupen Hazarika. For the Assamese the ULFA members were "our boys". Because of sympathetic officials, which the State called Subverted Bureaucrats the state could not even crack down on the militants. During the six years of Assam Movement, subnationalism was at its peak, and it finally resulted in the Assam Accord of 1985 which agreed to devise ways to deal with the immigration issue and also to come with resolutions to safeguard the culture of Assam. And with fresh elections, the student leaders formed a party called the Asom Gana Parishad and Prafulla Mahanta became the Chief Minister. But with this nothing changed. There was a regime crisis as the new govt could not deliver what was expected. Added charges of corruption against the young leaders made things worse. This strengthened ULFA's conviction that they were on the right path. As citizenship is a federal subject, Centre came up with such a law as Illegal Migration (determined by tribunals) Act, 1983 which made it almost impossible to detect immigrants. It is next to impossible to decipher who came to India before 1971 and who came after as culturally they are same. So only around a 1000 immigrants were to be deported. Another by-product of the Accord was that it fuelled the fear of the Plains Tribes like Bodos, Missing, Tiwas etc., that safeguarding Assamese culture will be done at the cost of their culture. Moreover they did not enjoy any safeguards like the Hill tribes. Bodos in fact accused Assamese of being outsiders and claimed that they themselves were the original inhabitants or the adivasis of the place. Their assertion took a violent turn with the formation of groups like Bodo Liberation Tigers, NDFB etc. They demanded autonomous districts if not separate state. But the problem was that the areas where the Bodos were in a large no did not form a geographically contiguous area. However this problem was sorted for the time being by the formation of Bodo Territorially Autonomous District.

ULFA faced a coercive face of the Hobbesian state in the form of counter insurgency operations like Operation Bajrang, Operation Rhino and most recently Operation All-Clear. ULFA which enjoyed popular support at one point of time lost that base owing to their violence which at times victimised the poor, women and children alike. The Surrendered ULFA (SULFA) enjoyed a no. of benefits from the govt and at times misused it to make easy money. ULFA has been time and again pushed to the negotiating table.

Now lets take a look at how the Central Govt has attempted to solve these problems. The solutions for the Central Govt have been twofold:
a) Militaristic for insurgency
b) Financial packages for underdevelopment

Northeast continues to be a land frontier which needs tight security. To curb insurgency the solution has been stringent militaristic rules in the form of AFSPA which has been in place for a few decades in the region which gives virtually unlimited power to the Army to kill without holding them accountable. Also it has put in place a Military Command structure called the Unified Command which puts he Army under the control of the Centre. Prafulla Mahanta supported such a structure and it was only Tarun Gogoi who talked of a greater role of Assam Police in such operations. However there is still a huge presence of paramilitary forces. This attitude is further vindicated by the fact that retired Army Generals are often appointed as Governors of these states. Their gubernatorial interventions often insulate counter-insurgency operations from democratic practices and scrutiny. Counter insurgency put in place a diminished form of democracy in terms of basic freedom, rule of law and principles of accountability and transparency. Mere timely elections can only fulfil an extremely minimalist and reductionist understanding of democracy. The attitude of the Centre has been paternalistic and patronising, treating Northeast as a spoiled child who needs to be disciplined, normalised. This same attitude transcended in other spheres as well.

A reason why low intensity conflicts could persist is owing to underdevelopment and unemployment it was always very easy for the militant groups to recruit new members. And counter insurgency operations can only eliminate a few militants, it does not change the ground conditions of living. Financial packages were made available but this fact was not taken into cognisance that it did not even percolate to the policies that it was meant for.

Baruah towards the end of both the books give very creative solutions which I endorse to a great extent and which I believe is worth pursuing as prospective solutions. First of all what needs to be acknowledged is that Northeast is not only the northeastern part of South Asia but also the northwestern part of Southeast Asia. It is the point where both these regions converge. Studies have shown that the people of Northeast are culturally closer to South east Asian countries. Nagas, Manpuris being in Myanmar, same tribes being inhabitants of Tibet and Arunachal, Tai Ahom of Assam being a part of the larger Tai community are all indicators of the deeper interconnections. The languages spoken also mostly belong to Tibeto-Burman family of languages. Any solution should respect these ties. The govt needs to give up being emotive about the Indian nation and its territorial boundaries. Rather the fact that these regions entered an agreement and joined Indian mainland on certain conditions should be respected. Ambikagiri Rochoudhary, a known poet of Assam, made a case for a loose federation and provisions for dual citizenship not unknown in federations in the Constituent Assembly debates. Immediately after partition such propositions might have sounded divisive but at present it can help as it can be used as an instrument to even incorporate the later generations of immigrants. Rather than exclusive that would be an inclusive idea. More power should be vested in the democratically elected state govts. AFSPA has to be modified immediately. Any further immigration on the scale of disturbing the demographic balance should be avoided but some mechanism of inclusion of those who already are here has to be put into place.

Going back to the history, Northeast India was on the southern trails of Silk Road which connected western region of China through Central Asia to the Mediterranean. Just like Nations regions can also be imagined. As Keniche Ohmae points out nation states are dysfunctional for human activities and it has made way for transnational regions like Catalonia in Spain, Hong Kong in China etc. India's Look East policy calls for a greater direct role for the Northeastern states. The natural outlets of Northeast needs to be opened to trade with the Southeast Asia. India if it overcomes her fears can actually do to Northeast what China has done to its Yunnan, making it an international city. If this can be revived like the Nathu La Pass rather than funding development from mainland India which is ill connected to the region, the development deficit of the region can be addressed to a great extent. However these issues can be addressed only after the internal situation is improved in terms of law and order.

On the conceptual level, rather than enforcing ideas of nation building in Northeast to make it feel more Indian, the state through its policies should put into place an alternative paradigm, that is, Northeast can be a part of India, despite of being different. Cultural alienation should come to an end. Effective policies should inculcate a confidence in the people and ensure that their interests can be safeguarded irrespective of if they have their own homelands or not. The ways of life of this region does not need to be normalized or standardised. The largest democracy of the world should not continue to put up an undemocratic, authoritarian, punitive face in the Northeast. Its high time that India should move beyond othering Northeast and do something to show its true commitment to the improvement of the region.

How To Deal With Essay Writing Rejections

IF YOU want to become an essay writing expert, you must learn how to accept rejections.
Who says that seeing your teacher grade your essay with "D" is totally a bad thing? It may sound silly, but if you always get negative comments about the essays you write, you are on your way to becoming an essay writing whiz!
But there are ways to switch this negativity into positive things.

Take a break from your essay writing routines first. If the human body gets exhausted after doing strenuous physical activities, the human mind is not exempted. Writing essays is an arduous task, so it's important to take a break once in a while to "recharge batteries:" Take a walk in the woods, fill your lungs with fresh air, binge with your favorite food, talk to your family or friends, and so on.

Ask yourself some questions. Your teacher is just grading all outputs of the essay writing tasks that he or she assigns to you. So do not blame him or her if your recently-submitted essay didn't pass his or her standards. Ask yourself, "Did I really do my assignment well?," "What went wrong with my work?," etc.

Improve on the worst. If your essays are always getting rejected or your writing style doesn't make the grade, think of the worst thing that would happen: You'll get lower grades in school. Try to improve on the worst by listing possible solutions-such as "I will read a lot," "I will strive harder," "I will seek the help of an essay writing service," etc.-and then pick out the best possible solution.

Try to laugh at your essay writing mistakes. Remember that nobody's perfect, so admit the hurtful truth that you write crap, but that's only for the meantime. Laughing at your mistakes means that you can bravely recognize one of your weaknesses. But you can also be up for the challenge of doing things better. Humor is a wonderful weapon that any writer can use to his or her benefit.

"Next essay please!" The only way to flee from rejection is to do other things which are of value to you. This may have something to do with improving yourself, such as reading more books, picking up on the styles of other great writers or writing about things that you like.

"Trade" your essays. The essay writing preference of your professor is different from the taste of let's say an editor of a daily or glossy. Your essay might be horrible in the eyes of your teacher, but it might be a handsome piece of writing to others. Cliché as it may seem, but there's an opportunity for every difficulty.

Move on! Past is past. If your professor thumped the essays you recently wrote, do not dare to ask him or her why your essay didn't pass his or her standards. "Knowing the truth" behind your recently rejected work will not help.

Above all, believe in the truism that brilliant ideas surface from rejections: Instead of crying over torn-out or thrown-out essay that you previously submitted in school, take rebuffs as a wake-up call, a driving force that will get you going!

Writing Watches

Below is an article of rambling writing tips and interesting little tid bits. I could probably write an article a week directed at these. Some will help would be writers and some wont but one thing for sure is that most of them are interesting.

1. Footnote

A footnote is a complete bibliographical citation indicated by a number in the text. Endnotes follow the same format but are listed on a page at the end of the paper. Today's great computer programs make them easy to prepare.

2. Paragraphs

Paragraphs in newspapers are most often one or two sentences long. Paragraphs in essays are far longer. Newspapers writers assume your not going to read the article all the way through. They keep their paragraphs punchy to keep you interested. Essay writers assume you're in for the long haul. They have the luxury of writing more discursive passages.

3. English Is Different

All English isn't the same. British English, used not only in Great Britain but also in India, the West Indies, and parts of Africa, uses some words and phrases differently from American English. For example, here are some common British words and the American equivalents: Lorry(truck), lift(elevator), bonnet(car hood), chips(French fries), crisps(snack chips), flat(apartment), barrister or solicitor(attorney or lawyer), nappy(diaper), mate(buddy), sweets(candy).

4. Expert Fields

Warning: The writer's education and academic degrees must match the field in which he or she is claiming expertise. Having a medical degree in brain surgery, for example, doesn't give someone the credentials to write about rocket science-or any other subject outside his or her field.

5. Friends Don't Read Drafts

Thinking of asking a friend or a lover to read your drafts to help you edit them? It's a great idea from your stand point, but your reader may not be as enthusiastic. British Prime Minister and writer Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) had a standard reply unmatched for diplomatic ambiguity for people who sent him unsolicited manuscripts to read: "Many thanks; I shall lose no time in reading it."

I hope you find some of these facts interesting and some of the tips useful. Keep watching for more articles with more and more tips and facts.

Dale Mazurek